Understanding Polish Noun Cases: A Beginner’s Guide


Understanding Polish Noun Cases: A Beginner’s Guide

One of the most challenging aspects of learning Polish is mastering its grammatical cases. Polish has seven cases, each serving a different grammatical function. This guide will introduce you to these cases, explain their uses, and provide examples and exercises to help you understand and practice them.

Polish Noun Cases

Overview of Polish Noun Cases

The Seven Cases

  • Nominative (Mianownik) – Used for the subject of a sentence.
  • Genitive (Dopełniacz) – Indicates possession or absence.
  • Dative (Celownik) – Used for the indirect object.
  • Accusative (Biernik) – Used for the direct object.
  • Instrumental (Narzędnik) – Indicates the means or manner.
  • Locative (Miejscownik) – Used with prepositions to indicate location.
  • Vocative (Wołacz) – Used for direct address.

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Nominative Case


The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence, answering the question “who?” or “what?”


  • The boy is reading. – Chłopiec czyta. (chwoh-pyets chi-tah)

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Genitive Case


The genitive case indicates possession and is also used after certain prepositions and verbs.


  • The book of the boy. – Książka chłopca. (kshawn-shka chwoh-### Essential Polish Phrases for Everyday Conversations


Learning a new language involves mastering basic phrases that can be used in everyday conversations. For beginners learning Polish, this means getting comfortable with greetings, introductions, asking for directions, and common courtesies. This guide will provide you with essential Polish phrases that you can use in various daily interactions, helping you build a solid foundation for your language skills.


Basic Greetings

Hello and Goodbye

  • Hello – Cześć (cheh-shch)
  • Good morning – Dzień dobry (jeyn doh-brih)
  • Good evening – Dobry wieczór (doh-brih vyeh-choor)
  • Goodbye – Do widzenia (doh veed-zen-ya)

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Introducing Yourself

  • My name is… – Mam na imię… (mahm nah ee-myeh…)
  • Nice to meet you – Miło mi (mee-woh mee)
  • How are you? – Jak się masz? (yahk shyeh mahsh?)

Responding to Introductions

  • I’m fine, thank you – Dobrze, dziękuję (doh-breh, jyen-koo-yeh)
  • And you? – A ty? (ah tih?)

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Asking for Directions

Basic Directional Phrases

  • Where is…? – Gdzie jest…? (gdjyeh yest…?)
  • How do I get to…? – Jak dojdę do…? (yahk doy-deh doh…?)
  • Left – Lewo (leh-voh)
  • Right – Prawo (prah-voh)
  • Straight ahead – Prosto (proh-stoh)


  • Where is the train station? – Gdzie jest dworzec? (gdjyeh yest dvaw-zhets?)
  • How do I get to the hotel? – Jak dojdę do hotelu? (yahk doy-deh doh ho-teh-loo?)

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Common Courtesies

Polite Expressions

  • Please – Proszę (proh-sheh)
  • Thank you – Dziękuję (jyen-koo-yeh)
  • You’re welcome – Proszę bardzo (proh-sheh bar-dzo)
  • Excuse me – Przepraszam (psheh-prah-shahm)
  • I’m sorry – Przepraszam (psheh-prah-shahm)

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Ordering Food and Drinks

At a Restaurant

  • I would like… – Chciałbym/Chciałabym… (hchahw-bihm/hchah-wah-bihm…)
  • The menu, please – Proszę menu (proh-sheh meh-nyoo)
  • Check, please – Proszę rachunek (proh-sheh rah-hoo-nek)


  • I would like a coffee – Chciałbym kawę (hchahw-bihm kah-veh)
  • The bill, please – Proszę rachunek (proh-sheh rah-hoo-nek)

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Shopping and Transactions

Shopping Phrases

  • How much does it cost? – Ile to kosztuje? (ee-leh toh koh-shtoo-yeh?)
  • Do you accept credit cards? – Czy akceptują karty kredytowe? (chih ahk-tseh-ptoo-yoh kar-tih kre-dih-toh-veh?)
  • I am just looking – Tylko się rozglądam (tihl-koh shyeh rozh-glohn-dahm)


  • How much does this shirt cost? – Ile kosztuje ta koszula? (ee-leh koh-shtoo-yeh tah koh-shoo-lah?)
  • I am just looking – Tylko się rozglądam (tihl-koh shyeh rozh-glohn-dahm)

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Mastering these essential Polish phrases will help you navigate everyday conversations with greater ease and confidence. Practice regularly, and soon you’ll find yourself engaging in basic Polish conversations with locals, making your experience in Poland more enjoyable and immersive. Remember, language learning is a gradual process, and consistent practice is key to improvement.

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